Mar 12, 2015

5 Fiber Deployments and Their Role in FTTx

FTTx Fiber optic architectures are equipped with optical fiber throughout long-distance segments of the network. For end deployment sectors that cover distances from the telecom facility (central office) to the end user, metal/copper cabling is generally used. FTTx, or “Fiber to the X” represents the various types of end deployment architecture available. Types of Fiber to the X include: FTTN (Fiber to the Node/Fiber to the Neighborhood), FTTC (Fiber to the Curb), FTTB (Fiber to the Building), and FTTH (Fiber to the Home). FTTx: Types 1) FTTN: In a Fiber to the Node/Fiber to the Neighborhood deployment, optical fiber ceases at the node (the node lies only a few miles from the customer). From the node, copper or coax fiber spans in branches to the end user.  2) FTTC: Fiber to the Curb/Fiber to the Cabinet consists of fiber optic cabling ending within a short distance to the end user (within 300 yards). It is a similar deployment structure to FTTN.  3) FTTB: In a Fiber to the Building/Fiber to the Basement deployment, optical cabling ends directly at the building.  4) FTTH: Fiber to the Home deployment occurs when optical cabling ends directly at the individual home or business. There are several types of FTTH network structures that vary based on their transport protocol and how the data is encoded and transmitted. These include Active Star Network, Home Run, and Architecture Passive Optical Network (PON). FTTH: Home Run The Fiber to the Home, Home Run deployment is structured with a dedicated fiber from the central office to each home. It offers the most flexibility of all FTTH types, but is also the most expensive. This deployment type is commonly used for small developments and rural areas.  FTTH: Active Star  The Active Star deployment contains a multifiber cable leading from the central office to a local switch. From there, the fiber leads to homes and businesses individually. This method is flexible and slightly less expensive than the Home Run Architecture. Essentially, the Active Star deployment is FTTC without copper cabling at the end portion of the deployment.  FTTH: Passive Optical Network (PON) PON is a complex network structure in the way that it uses several PON applications including BPON, GPON, EPON, and WDM.  WDM PON is a passive optical network with each destination requiring a specified wavelength. BPON, otherwise known as broadband PON, is the most widely used application due to its ability to transport all types of data with an ATM protocol. GPON (gigabit-capable PON) uses either ATM or GEM encoding and an IP-based protocol. GPON allows voice, video, and data transmission at data rates up to 2.5Gb/s. This method uses Wavelength Division Multiplexing so that a single fiber can be used for both upstream and downstream data transmission. 10GPON supports up to 10G downstream data and is known to be the “future-proof” application of choice. EPON (Ethernet PON), also referred to as GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network) is an IEEE developed PON standard. It is compatible with other Ethernet standards, so no conversion is necessary when connecting to Ethernet-based networks. EPON uses transmission at 1Gb/s. and supports up to 10G of symmetrical traffic. WHY FTTH? Fiber to the home is a future proof method of fiber optic deployment; since it is a passive network with no active components, it requires minimal network maintenance costs. FTTH also eliminates the need for a DC power network and provides revenue-generating services such as voice, high-speed data, video on demand, etc. Fiber to the Home has the capability to provide enough bandwidth reliability at a low cost. This is what will allow FTTH to meet future consumer demand.